I mentioned cURL in passing in the last blog post. In case you haven’t heard of it: it is a super-useful tool you can use to issue HTTP requests from the command line (and a whole slew of other stuff). Just thought I’d jot down a quick note on how to use it to play around with the pix-it HTTP handler.
It’s a breeze, really. So effortless! If you’ve installed cURL and vim (and added them to your PATH), you can do the whole command-line ninja thing and never take your fingers off the keyboard. Fiddler is a bit more -uh- fiddly for in that respect.
Here’s the work flow in it’s entirety. Repeat as necessary.
The previous blog post introduced PixItHandler, a custom HTTP handler for ASP.NET. The handler responds to HTTP POST requests containing a JSON description of a 8-bit style image with an actual PNG image. Provided you know the expected JSON format, it’s pretty easy to use a tool like Fiddler (or cURL for that matter) to generate renderings of your favorite retro game characters. However, while you might (and should) find those tools on the machine of a web developer, they have somewhat limited penetration among more conventional users. Web browsers have better reach, if you will.
So a challenge remains before the PixItHandler is ready to take over the world. Say we wanted to include a pix-it image in a regular HTML page? That is, we would like the user to make the request from a plain ol’ web browser, and use it to display the resulting image to the user. We can’t just use an HTML img tag as we normally would, since it issues an HTTP GET request for the resource specified in the src attribute. Moreover, we lack a way of including the JSON payload with the request. We can use another approach though. Using JQuery, we can issue the appropriate POST request with the JSON payload to the HTTP handler. So that means we’re halfway there.
We’re not quite done, though. We still need to figure out what to do with the response. The HTTP response from the PixItHandler is a binary file – it’s not something you can easily inject into the DOM for rendering. So that’s our next challenge.
You might think I’d declare victory at this point, but there’s one more obstacle in our way. Unfortunately, it seems that JQuery isn’t entirely happy funnelling the binary response through to us. Loading up binary data isn’t really the scenario the XMLHttpRequest object was designed to support, and so different browsers may or may not allow this to proceed smoothly. I haven’t really gone down to the bottom of the rabbit hole on this issue, because there’s a much simpler solution available: do the base64-encoding server side and pass the image data as text. So I’ve written a BixItHandler which is almost identical to the PixItHandler, except it base64-encodes the result before writing it to the response stream:
Problem solved! Now we can easily create an HTML page with some JQuery to showcase our pix-it images. Here’s one way to do it:
As you can see, we define the basic outline for a space invader as static JSON data in the script. For each of the div tags, we hijack the color code inside and use that to override the color for the space invader. Then we issue the POST request to our brand new BixItHandler, which has been configured to capture requests aimed at the bix.it virtual resource. The response is a base64-encoded PNG file, which we then insert into the src attribute of an img element that we conjure up on the fly.
And how does it look?
So-called custom HTTP handlers can be incredibly useful. It’s almost laughably easy to write your own handler, and it enables some scenarios that might be difficult, cumbersome or inelegant to support otherwise. It’s definitely something you’ll want in your repertoire if you’re an ASP.NET programmer.
In essence, what a custom HTTP handler gives you is the ability to respond to an HTTP request by creating arbitrary content on the fly and have it pushed out to the client making the request. This content could be any type of file you like. In theory it could be HTML for the browser to render, but it typically won’t be (you have regular ASP.NET pages for that, remember?). Rather, you’ll have some way of magically conjuring up some binary artefact, such as an image or a PDF document. You could take various kinds of input to your spell, such as data submitted with the request, data from a database, the phase of the moon or what have you.
I’m sure you can imagine all kinds of useful things you might do with a custom HTTP handler. On a recent project, I used it to generate a so-called bullet graph to represent the state of a project. If you use ASP.NET’s chart control, you’ll notice that it too is built around a custom HTTP handler. Any time you need a graphical representation that changes over time, you should think of writing a custom HTTP handler to do the job.
Of course, you can use custom HTTP handlers to do rather quirky things as well, just for kicks. Which brings us to the meat of this blog post.
This particular HTTP handler is inspired by the phenomenon known as Post-It War, show-casing post-it note renderings of images (often retro game characters). Unfortunately, I’m too lazy to create actual, physical post-it figures, so I figured I’d let the ASP.NET pipeline do the heavy lifting for me. I am therefore happy to present you with a custom HTTP handler to produce 8-bit-style images, using a simple JSON interface. Bet you didn’t know you needed that.
The basic idea is for the user to POST a description of the image as JSON, and have the HTTP handler turn it into an actual image. Turns out it’s really easy to do.
We’ll let the user specify the number of coarse-grained “pixels” in two dimensions, as well as the size of the “pixels”. Based on this, the HTTP handler lays out a grid constituting the image. By default, all pixels are transparent, except those that are explicitly associated with a color. For each color, we indicate coordinates for the corresponding thus-colored pixels within the grid.
So, say we wanted to draw something simple, like the canonical space invader. We’ll draw a grid by hand, and fill in pixels as appropriate. A thirteen by ten pixel grid will do nicely.
We can glean the appropriate pixels to color black from the grid, which makes it rather easy to translate into a suitable JSON file. The result might be something like:
We’ve established that the user will be posting data like this to our custom HTTP handler; our task is to translate it into an image and feed it into the response stream. Most of this work can be done without considering the context of an HTTP handler at all. The HTTP handler is just there to expose the functionality over the web, really. It’s almost like a web service.
Unfortunately, getting the JSON from the POST request is more cumbersome than it should be. I had to reach for the request’s input stream in order to get to the data. Once you get the JSON, however, the rest is smooth sailing.
I use Json.NET‘s useful Linq-to-JSON capability to coerce the JSON into a .NET object, which I feed to the image-producing method. The Linq-to-JSON code is pretty simple, once you get used to the API:
You might be able to do this even simpler by using Json.NET’s deserialization support, but this works for me. There’s a little bit of fiddling in order to allow for the optional specification of a background color for the image.
The .NET type looks like this:
The Pixel type simply represents an (X, Y) coordinate in the grid:
Creating the image is really, really simple. We start with a blank slate that’s either transparent or has the specified background color, and then we add colored squares to it as appropriate. Here’s how I do it:
That’s just about all there is to it. The entire HTTP handler looks like this:
Warning: I take it for granted that you won’t put code this naïve into production, opening yourself up to denial-of-service attacks and what have you. It takes CPU and memory to produce images, you know.
Of course, as always when using a custom HTTP handler, we must add the handler to web.config. Like so:
Note that we restrict the HTTP verb to POST, since we need the JSON data to produce the image.
Now that we have the HTTP handler in place, we can try generating some images. A simple way to invoke the handler is to use Fiddler. Fiddler makes it very easy to build your own raw HTTP request, including a JSON payload. Just what we need. Let’s create a space invader!
All we need to do is add the appropriate headers and the JSON payload.
The image only includes the headers for the request, but Fiddler also has a text area for the request body, which is where you’ll stick the JSON data.
The PNG-file returned by our HTTP handler looks like this:
Of course, we could create more elaborate images, using more pixels and more colors. For instance, the following JSON could be used to evoke the memory of a certain anti-hero named Larry, hailing from the hey-day of Sierra On-Line.
You might say “that’s a big file to create a small image”, but that would be neglecting the greatness of the Laffer, and his impact on a generation of young adolescents.